NATO is a collective security alliance formed in 1949 as an anti-Soviet military alliance. It initially consisted of 10 European countries, and the United States and Canada. Today it consists of 30 countries, including Belgium (1949), Canada (1949), Denmark (1949), France (1949), Iceland (1949), Italy (1949), Luxembourg (1949), Netherlands(1949), Norway (1949), Portugal (1949), United Kingdom (1949), United States (1949), Greece (1952), Turkey (1952), Germany (1955), Spain (1982), Czech Republic (1999), Hungary (1999), Poland (1999), Bulgaria (2004), Estonia (2004), Latvia (2004), Lithuania (2004), Romania (2004), Slovakia (2004), Slovenia (2004), Albania (2009), Croatia (2009), Montenegro (2017), North Macedonia (2020). Many of the countries that joined NATO after 1991 were former Soviet Republics or Warsaw Pact countries.
"Security in our daily lives is key to our well-being. NATO’s purpose is to guarantee the freedom and security of its members through political and military means. (It) promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defense and security-related issues to solve problems, build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict. (It) is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under the collective defense clause of NATO's founding treaty - Article 5 of the Washington Treaty or under a United Nations mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organizations."
NATO and Article 5 by John R. Deni
Call Number: On order
Publication Date: 2017-10-04
"For much of the last 25 years, NATO has focused on crisis management in places such as Kosovo and Afghanistan, resulting in major changes to alliance strategy, resourcing ,force structure, and training. Re-embracing collective defense —which lies at the heart of the Treaty of Washington’s Article 5 commitment— is no easy feat, and not something NATO can do through rhetoric and official pronouncements. Nonetheless, this shift is vitally necessary if the alliance is to remain the bulwark of Western defense and security. Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea and its invasion of Ukraine have fundamentally upended the security environment in Europe, thrusting NATO into the spotlight as the primary collective defense tool most European states rely upon to ensure their security."
Beyond NATO: A New Security Architecture for Eastern Europe by Michael E. O'Hanlon
Call Number: On order
Publication Date: 2017-08-15
"In this new Brookings Marshall Paper, Michael O'Hanlon argues that now is the time for Western nations to negotiate a new security architecture for neutral countries in eastern Europe to stabilize the region and reduce the risks of war with Russia. He believes NATO expansion has gone far enough. The core concept of this new security architecture would be one of permanent neutrality (for)...Finland and Sweden; Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus; Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan; and finally Cyprus plus Serbia, as well as possibly several other Balkan states."
"In Permanent Alliance? Stanley R. Sloan discusses the global trends that are changing the environment for transatlantic relations, such as European integration, global security, emerging powers, and the role of the United States as a world leader... Permanent Alliance? links historical development with contemporary issues and relationships, discussing such topics as the permanence of the alliance, NATO missions, nuclear strategy and missile defense, relationship with the EU, the crisis in the alliance during the George W. Bush administration, and the challenges faced by the Obama administration. A significant contribution to the literature, the book will be a key text for anyone studying and researching transatlantic security relations and international relations."