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Reference resources are usually encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks, manuals and other books that you would refer to when wanting to know a definition of a word or concept, a general overview of a topic, specific information about a certain period of time or event in history.
CRJ101 Course Tip: The first step in researching a topic (in this example, "restorative justice") is defining it. Often encyclopedias will lead you to the most relevant court cases or public laws in addition to giving you a broad understanding of your topic. Read the entry and look for cases (471 U.S. 1) or public laws (The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994).
Step by Step: Finding Encyclopedias
Choose the most appropriate reference database or electronic encyclopedia
Search for your topic in the search bar or encyclopedia index
Contemporary probation practice is developing rapidly and is become increasingly professionalized. Probation officers are typically described now as offender managers, and the creation of NOMS (National Offender Management Service) has broadened the remit of the Probation Service. As well as bringing an increased emphasis on skills and qualifications it has also introduced a new set of ideas and concepts into the established probation lexicon - including institutional, legal, political and theoretical terms of its own as well as importing concepts from the disciplines of sociology, criminology and psychology.
This Dictionary explicitly addresses the historical, legal, theoretical, organisational, policy, practice, research and evidential contexts within which 'modern' youth justice in the UK and beyond is located.
An interdisciplinary source that addresses not only law but also sociology, psychology, history and economics. Entries vary widely from abortion to rape and from family violence to wiretapping, offering a mirror of issues dominating today's headlines. This edition is a complete update and revision of the previous edition that includes new essays on topics such as stalking, hate crimes, and HIV.
Examines all aspects of the world of cybercrime. Articles address key areas of concern and specifically those having to with terminology, definitions and social constructs of crime, national infrastructure security vulnerabilities and capabilities, types of attacks to computers and information systems, and computer abusers and cybercriminals.
This encyclopedia fills a much-needed gap between legal texts focusing on the theory and history behind the law and more practical guides dealing with the law and its everyday effect upon its citizens. Containing approximately 200 articles, the Encyclopedia includes: brief descriptions of each issue's historical background, covering important statutes and cases; profiles of various U.S. laws and regulations; and details of how laws
Provides current information on more than 5,000 legal topics. Includes completely revised articles covering important issues, biographies, definitions of legal terms and more. Covers such high-profile topics as the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, and physician-assisted suicide.
An indispensable guide to the vibrant and expanding field of sociology. Featuring entries, from concise definitions to discursive essays, written by leading international academics, the Dictionary offers a truly global perspective, examining both American and European traditions and approaches. Entries cover schools, theories, theorists and debates, with substantial articles on all key topics in the field.
The individual entries in this ready-reference source explain in concise, detailed, and jargon-free language some of the most important topics, theories, discoveries, concepts, and organizations in criminal justice. Brief biographical profiles of the people who have made a significant and lasting impact on the field of criminal justice and society in general are included. Photographs, statistical charts, and graphs aid the reader in understanding the topics and people covered in the reference work.
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A database of in-depth, authoritative reports on a full range of political and social-policy issues extending back to 1923. Each report is footnoted and includes an overview, background section, chronology, bibliography and debate-style pro-con feature, plus tools to study the evolution of the topic over time.
Provides full-text online versions of hundreds of top quality reference books in all major subjects from art to medicine, psychology to history, and technology to literature. Includes bilingual and biographical dictionaries.
Full text database providing subject specific dictionaries, encyclopedias and general reference books as well as the online version of the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Subjects include science, history, medicine, psychology and mental health, literature, drama, film, popular culture, business, law, and more.
Oyez (pronounced oh-yay), a free law project from Cornell’s Legal Information Institute (LII), Chicago-Kent College of Law and Justia.com, is a multimedia archive devoted to making the Supreme Court of the United States accessible to everyone. It is a complete and authoritative source for all of the Court’s audio since the installation of a recording system in October 1955. Oyez offers transcript-synchronized and searchable audio, plain-English case summaries, illustrated decision information, and full text Supreme Court opinions.